Travel by airplane It can often become a stressful and exhausting process for most travelers, since there are a series of fundamental steps that cannot be forgotten if we want everything to go well before, during and after our plane trip. Therefore, in what follows we try to solve all these doubts.

Below you have an index with all the points that we are going to deal with in this article.

Before the flight

Si vas a travel by airplane, then we advise you to plan your trip well in advance in order to avoid stress and doubts that arise as the date approaches.

In this way, we can inform ourselves in sufficient time in advance about the different aspects to take into account in the previous process.

To rest well Before the trip, as well as not eating large amounts of food in the three hours before the flight is also essential, since we will avoid adding possible nausea or unnecessary fatigue during the flight.

In addition to all this, there are a number of relevant issues, such as documentation, the choice of seat or boarding pass, about which we inform you below.

Required Documentation

For domestic flights within Spain:

  • National passengers: National Identity Document (DNI) or passport (not necessarily valid), or Driving license issued in Spain.
  • Passengers from the European Union (EU) /Schengen area (including Andorra and Liechtenstein): DNI or passport (not necessarily valid), Spanish Residence Permit or one of any of the States of the Schengen area (in force), or Driving license issued in Spain.
  • Passengers from third countries: National Identity Document (DNI) or passport (in force), Spanish Residence Permit or of one of the Schengen Area States (in force), or Driving license issued in Spain.

For flights from Spain to the EU / Schengen Area (including Andorra and Liechtenstein):

  • National passengers: DNI or valid passport. If you are a Spanish citizen and your destination is Austria, Germany, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Sweden, Malta, Monaco, Portugal or Switzerland, you can travel with your passport if it has been a maximum of five years since it expired.
  • Passengers from the European Union (EU) / Schengen Area (including Andorra and Liechtenstein): DNI or passport (in force).
  • Passengers from third countries: Travel title or passport (in force).

For flights from Spain to third countries:

  • National passengers: Valid passport).
  • Passengers from the European Union (EU) / Schengen Area (including Andorra and Liechtenstein): Passport or Travel Title (in force).
  • Passengers from third countries: Passport or Travel Title (in force).

Below we list the European countries that are members of the Schengen Borderless Area:

  • A: Germany, Austria
  • B: Belgium
  • D: Denmark
  • E: Estonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
  • F: France, Finland
  • G: Greece
  • H: Hungary
  • I: Iceland, Italy
  • L: Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg
  • M: Malta
  • N: Norway
  • Q: Netherlands, Poland, Portugal
  • A: Czech Republic
  • S: Switzerland, Sweden

In contrast, the following European countries do not belong to the Schengen Area: Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Citizens of Panama do not need a visa for stays of 90 days or less within the Schengen territory. For the rest, this is the documentation you will need if you come from countries outside the EU / Schengen Area and want to travel to a member country:

  • Short stays (less than 90 days): You will need a Schengen or short-term visa, which enables you to stay less than 90 days in the Schengen States. The Schengen visa issued by an Embassy or Consulate of any of the countries belonging to the Schengen Area is also valid if you travel to the rest of the member countries during the 90 days allowed.
  • Residence visa: if you are a foreign citizen (including Panama) and you want to move your place of residence to Spain or some other member country of the Schengen territory, you will have to apply for a residence visa.
  • Study visa: If you are a foreign citizen and you are going to study, do an internship or carry out volunteer activities in Spain or any other country that is a member of the Schengen territory for a period of more than 90 days, you will have to apply for a study visa (except for Panamanian citizens).

Choose the best seat

Most passengers are confused when it comes to choose a seat on the plane, mainly because they do not know the characteristics of the aircraft in which they are going to travel.

Brianda low cost airlines, It is the airline itself that automatically assigns you the seat during the online purchase of the ticket, so that the passenger must comply with what they have to do unless they decide to pay a fee to choose a seat.

If we are assigned no seat during the reservation and we have to sit down as we enter the plane, we recommend that you arrive with in advanceBecause the earlier you board, the more seats will be available to choose from.

In any case, if we are given the opportunity to choose a seat, we will have to have a series of aspects to find the best option, such as the fullfilment of security requirements, the space between the adjoining seat and ours, etc.

Many passengers give preference to the seats that are next to the window because they prefer to look through it and others opt for the seats located in the emergency exit, since these are usually wider, although it all depends on the aircraft in the one we travel, since it varies depending on the airline.

Low cost tickets

When it comes to finding low cost tickets, it is essential that you start your search early, two or three weeks in advance would be ideal. We also advise you to dispense with travel agencies if what you want is to lower the cost of your trip: the best thing is that you look on your own via the Internet, since it is the best way to find bargain offers.

Similarly, avoid traveling on weekends and holidays, since flights are usually much more expensive on these dates because there is a greater demand. So, if you can, it is best to travel during the week, as well as avoid flights destined for main airports.

The cheapest flights land at secondary airports, although, in this case, you should also consider whether you will have to add the additional cost of another means of transport to go from the airport to your final destination.

Check-in and boarding pass

Boarding pass It is the document necessary to board the plane, without which we will not be allowed to fly. This must be accompanied by the DNI or passport, depending on our destination, as we have explained in the previous section (Required Documentation).

Currently, the vast majority of airlines, both conventional and those of charter flights, have the option of Check in online on its website.

La Online Billing allows passengers to print their boarding pass from home, without having to pick it up at the airport, where most airlines, especially low cost ones, will charge us an additional fee.

Another possibility that exists today is the mobile boarding pass, thanks to which we can carry our boarding pass on our smartphone without having to carry it on paper. To do this, we will have to install a special mobile application depending on the company we travel with.

Each passenger will have to carry their boarding pass. Therefore, our advice is that you do not forget to print it and take it to the airport on the day of your flight departure, because it will be necessary both to check your luggage and to board the plane.

Checked baggage

Each passenger can check in one suitcase per journey. The conventional airlines They usually allow for free hiring a baggage allowance, as long as the suitcase complies with a series of weight limitations.

However, in low cost airlines this service is not free, so if we want to check in one or two suitcases, we will have to pay an additional fee, in addition to meeting the established requirements regarding maximum weight.

In the article Features of checked baggage on Ryanair You can consult the regulations regarding the airline Ryanair.

For these reasons, we advise you to check well what is the weight allowed in the company with which you are going to travel if you do not want to get surprises at the airport or pay any extra fee for each extra kilogram.

Hand luggage

Every passenger is entitled to one piece of hand luggage per trip for free, although it must have specific dimensions and weight that vary depending on the airline and whether it is conventional or low-cost. In addition to the dimensions, there are a number of items that are prohibited from transporting in the cabin, such as:

  • Firearms
  • Acids and toxic
  • Sharp and pointed objects
  • Work utensils (eg saws or drills)

As to liquid transport In the cabin, there is specific regulation in this regard that is common to all flights, according to which liquids must be transported in a transparent and resealable plastic bag with a capacity not exceeding 1 liter. In addition, the containers of the articles that we carry inside may not contain more than 100 ml.

Other items such as laptops, mobile phones, cameras, tablets, audio devices, etc. Yes, they are allowed in the cabin, as well as bringing food.

In these articles you can consult the specific regulations in relation to hand luggage with Ryanair y EasyJet, the most popular low cost airlines in Europe:

Children traveling alone

In Spain, it is allowed for children travel alone from 5 years. For these cases, airlines have a escort service for minors, thanks to which the company takes care of the minor from the moment they arrive at the check-in counter until their arrival at the destination airport.

It is an existing service at the international level and consists of the delivery of a vest to the minor in which it says the acronym UM, which means in English unaccompanied minor (unaccompanied minor) and is recognized in all airports in the world.

Throughout the process, someone from the airline staff will be by the minor's side at all times.

The procedure is carried out either during the online reservation or from the airline's reservation center at the airport and, for your request, it is essential to present:

  • Family Book
  • DNI
  • Name and contact information of the person who identifies himself as the minor's legal guardian

The data of the person who will take charge at the destination airport must also appear in said request.

During flight

A large number of passengers feel fear o Stress when traveling By planeespecially if this is your first time doing it. These fears can originate mainly due to ignorance of the levels of security that currently exist in air traffic.

Also the long flights or transoceanic can cause many nerves to passengers, since they will spend many hours in the same aircraft. To overcome all these problems or discomforts, there are a series of measures you can take to relax before and during your flight, depending on the cause that originates it.

Fear to fly

El miedo to fly o aerofobia It is the fear or phobia of traveling by plane, which is caused by a considerable increase in anxiety levels. In many cases, it is caused because the passenger previously suffered from claustrophobia, that is, fear of being in small spaces, or from acrophobia or fear of heights.

It is estimated that currently one in three passengers suffers from this phobia, which is why different airlines have begun to teach free courses so that their customers lose this fear, which represents a problem especially for those people who must travel for reasons professionals, in which case air transport is unavoidable.

In the most extreme cases of aerophobia, the air passenger may have symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, vomiting o panic attacks. Many people lose this fear or much of it after learning in depth about what it is to travel by plane. By knowing the existing security measures and how the process works, the passenger calms down and the fear problem disappears.


Turbulences are air movements that you cannot normally see, in which case they are called clear air movements. They may be due to:

  • Adverse atmospheric conditions
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Close step of a jet engine
  • Storms

Generally, the turbulences that can be experienced on short or medium-haul flights are light or moderate, so if they do occur, you must remain calm as you are not in danger.

In case they are more intense and you need some kind of assistance, modern airplanes are equipped for these situations.

Long flights

A flight is considered long-duration or transoceanic when its duration exceeds 10 hours. So many hours within the same space can affect us emotionally or even cause us fatigue, so if we are going to make a flight of these characteristics, we will have to take a series of measures.

One of the main ones would be to choose a seat, so that we select one in which we can feel comfortable during the journey and even sleep if we are tired. The most important is don't lose patience during the journey and, of course, not be in a rush to get there.


When the airplane reaches a certain height, the natural atmospheric pressure is too low to supply enough oxygen to the airplane's occupants.

For this reason, it is necessary to pressurize the aircraft, that is, the constant pumping of compressed air in the cabin, in order to ensure the safety and comfort of the occupants during the journey.

The usual earache and other discomforts such as tooth pain or fatigue can be the cause of this pressurization.


Pregnant women can travel by plane without problems until 36 weeks of pregnancy unless their doctor tells them otherwise, they have had a premature delivery before or have any complications such as:

  • Diabetes
  • Loss of blood
  • Hypertension
  • High tension
  • Risk of placental abruption

Also in the cases of twin or multiple pregnancy it is advisable to postpone the trip whenever possible.

Heart problems

During a flight, the passenger must remain seated for a period of time in an environment in which there is less oxygen than we are used to on the ground, so that the heart is forced to pump more blood more blood throughout the organism.

This can lead to problems, such as increased blood pressure or shortness of breath, in people who have or have had heart-related problems.

In the most extreme cases, a blood clot can even form in a vein. In any case, if you have heart problems, we recommend consult with your doctor whether you should travel by plane or not.

After the trip

After the journey, there are a series of aspects that must be taken into account to end our flight successfully. First of all, if we have checked baggage, we will have to pick it up at the destination airport. However, there are cases in which for different reasons, airlines may lose our luggage.

If, on the other hand, our flight has not been made and has been canceled, we must also be informed about the steps to be followed in order to receive a refund of our ticket money or to grant us any other compensation. We inform you about these aspects below.

jet lag

El jet lag is a sensation that the air passenger experiences especially after a long duration flight and it is due to traveling in a few hours to a destination that is many kilometers away.

Also called time zone syndrome o circadian dysrhythmiaAmong the symptoms of jet lag we highlight: headache, tiredness, sleep, etc. In general, the level of intensity of jet lag that we suffer will increase the more time zones we go through until we reach the destination country.

Loss of luggage

In the event of loss, delay or damage to checked baggage, the airline is obliged to be responsible for all such inconveniences.

If this is your case, do not hesitate to go to the counter of the airline with which you have traveled and request a Baggage Irregularity Report (PIR), for which you will need, among other information, the billing number of your suitcase.

In addition to the PIR, you must also fill out a claims sheet to record any damages that the corresponding airline may have caused you.

Claim for flight cancellation

If your flight is canceled, delayed for more than 5 hours or if you are denied boarding due to overbooking, you have the right to a refund of your ticket or to be offered an alternative route in conditions comparable to those of your original flight.

In any case, these rights are subject to the regulations established by each airline, so it is best to consult the specific regulations of the airline with which you are going to travel.

In this article, we show you the cancellation rights offered by Ryanair: Ryanair flight cancellations.

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